Web development. Where to begin

Web development. Where to begin

At the start, it is sometimes unclear which programming language to choose first. In fact, there is no perfect language that will define your career once and for all. Learning a new programming language is like learning another foreign language. First you need to decide what suits you best: front-end or back-end.

Choosing a direction
Frontend
This is what the user sees and interacts with on the page. Design, visuals, diagrams – the whole front side. The tasks of the frontend are to make a website that will solve the problems of the owner, work equally correctly on all devices, regardless of the browser and screen size, and at the same time will be convenient for the user. Basic tools: HTML, CSS and JavaScript. Suitable for those who are meticulous about details and want to immediately see the result of their work.

Backend
Invisible part of the site. The back-end developer is responsible for what is hidden from the user’s eyes and runs on the server. For example: creates databases and programs that will write information to the database; encrypts passwords and valuable information; configures access and data backup system; writes programs that process information invisible to the user.

There are several programming languages ​​for the backend: PHP, Ruby, Python, or Node.js. Backend development requires database management systems: MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite or MongoDB.

Suitable for those who are interested in working with data and solving architectural problems.

Page layout
Whether you choose front-end or back-end, you have to interact with web pages. To do this, you need to learn HTML and CSS.

Html
It is a hypertext markup language. Responsible for the structure and content of the page. It consists of tags, and a tag consists of a name between the less than and greater than signs. For example: <h1>, <p> and <ul>.

Think back to how you work with a document in a word processor. You write text, highlight fragments in italics or color, insert pictures or tables. A web developer does the same in a code editor using tags.
Instead of the * .txt extension, * .html is used here. It makes it clear to the browser that the code of the web page is inside the file. The browser parses its structure, determines the relative position of the elements and renders them.
HTML web standards are described in the specifications. This is the main source of knowledge for both browsers and developers. It is important to follow their updates.

CSS

It is the language that is used to style your markup. For example: make the text red, align to the left, round the corners of the image, play with fonts, make indents larger or smaller.
The <p> tag is responsible for the formation of a text paragraph. Let”s say we want all <p> s on the page to get the same properties. To do this, you need to connect styles to the page. Until they are connected, there will be no effect from them. Styles can be embedded within the page”s HTML code (inline) or included as an external file. Most often, styles are included from an external file with the * .css extension. This separates the markup from the styling, reduces the chance of errors, and caches the external file and does not reload it. To connect from an external file, use the <link> tag.

Familiarity with HTML and CSS
Knowing the basics of HTML and CSS will allow you to create simple websites with text content. If you want something more complicated, you can”t do without programming languages.

Programming

JavaScriptA browser-based programming language for front-end development. All popular browsers support it. Every website, every web application that you use contains JavaScript code. It is often recommended for beginners to learn because it is simple enough, but it contains all the fundamental things: an object-oriented model and data structures.
It is used to liven up HTML pages: add user interaction processing or interesting visual effects to the page. You can even paint on canvas with it. JavaScript is only limited by your imagination and browser support. Don”t confuse it with Java, they are completely different languages.



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